عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Co-operatives are enterprises that exist to provide economic services to their members. They could emerge٫ theoretically٫ in almost any sector of the economy and in any time and community setting in modern history. And yet٫ they do not emerge at all times and places: historically٫ the development of co-operatives has been clustered in certain eras٫ in certain fields of activity٫ and in certain regions. There are numerous reasons for this clustering٫ but one of them is external to the co-operatives themselves and their immediate economic concerns. Where large numbers of co-operatives have been created٫ this has usually been due٫ if not to state action from above٫ then to the activities of social movements.
The importance of social movements has been neglected both in analysis of current prospects for co-operative development٫ and in co-operatives understanding of their own history. In developed countries with mature co-operative movements٫ co-operative history tends to be institutionalized: the social-movement context is lost or forgotten. In developing countries٫ the state has frequently played a large role and has often attempted to create co-operatives without attention to surrounding social movements or the lack thereof.
To appreciate the role of social movements means re-thinking co-operative history ٫ with direct implications for all those interested today in the creation of new co-operatives or in the revitalization of old ones.